The brain is an exceptional organ, which is connected to every other organ system in the body. The brain is responsible for receiving, reviewing, organizing, and sending enormous amounts of information, often simultaneously. It controls and coordinates our thoughts, actions, moods, movements, sensory perceptions, and consciousness. The brain has three parts: the cerebrum, the brain stem, and the cerebellum.
The cerebrum is a mass of tissue containing most of the nerves in the nervous system. It is divided into two halves, or hemispheres, each of which is further divided into four parts, or lobes. The lobes (the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal) each serve a number of specific functions. The effects of neurological injury affecting the cerebrum often depend on the location of the brain damage. For example, if a person suffers damage to the left frontal lobe, they may lose control of language functioning. Damage to the temporal lobes may lead to trouble recognizing others and/or trouble with memory recall. Damage to one side of the brain, as in stroke, can result in loss of functioning to the opposite side of the body and other cognitive impairments.
The brain stem is responsible for controlling many of the vital functions of the body, such as breathing, swallowing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. Significant damage to the brain stem caused by a neurological injury is most often fatal.
The cerebellum is responsible for coordinating the body’s movements, balance and equilibrium, and muscle tone. Damage to this part of the brain with a neurological injury can result in loss of coordination and movements that are slow or uncontrolled.